Semiconductor package, · A BGA can provide more interconnection pins than can be put on a dual in-line or flat package. The whole bottom surface of the device can be used, instead of just the perimeter. The traces connecting the package's leads to the wires or balls which connect the die to package are also on average shorter than with a perimeter-only type, leading to better performance at high speeds.Soldering, · Soldering (AmE: /ˈsɒdərɪŋ/, BrE: /ˈsoʊldərɪŋ/) is a process in which two or more items are joined together by melting and putting a filler metal (solder) into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal. Unlike welding, soldering does not involve melting the work pieces. In brazing, the work ...Transistor, · for germanium, B for silicon, and C for materials like GaAs); the second letter denotes the intended use (A for diode, C for general-purpose transistor, etc.). A 3-digit sequence number (or one letter then two digits, for industrial types) follows. With early ...A Medley of Potpourri, · In the most advanced logic devices, prior to the silicon epitaxy step, tricks are performed to improve the performance of the transistors to be built. One method involves introducing a straining step wherein a silicon variant such as silicon-germanium (SiGe) is deposited.Integrated circuit, · Starting with copper oxide, proceeding to germanium, then silicon, the materials were systematically studied in the 1940s and 1950s. Today, monocrystalline silicon is the main substrate used for ICs although some III-V compounds of the periodic table such as gallium arsenide are used for specialized applications like LEDs , lasers , solar cells and the highest-speed integrated circuits..
Full article: Contaminants: a dark side of food supplements?, · (2019). Contaminants: a dark side of food supplements? Free Radical Research: Vol. 53, NutRedOx COST Action CA16112, Personalized Nutrition in aging society: redox control of major age-related disease. Guest Editors: Ana Sofia Gregório Fernandes and Claus Jacob, pp. 1113-1135.